The Abstract is a self-contained piece of writing and usually appears in the front matter or preliminaries. The Abstract consists of summary statements for most or all sections in a confirmation report and hence is self-contained. Examiners and other readers often read the Abstract first so as to obtain the whole picture of a study, and then read the main body, which usually comprises Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Preliminary Results, and Significance and Implications.
The Abstract begins with a statement that contains “aims to analyse”, indicating the research purpose of the study. The key terms, “liquefied petroleum gas” and “inverse diffusion flame”, are given abbreviation forms, which are expected to recur throughout the confirmation report.
Preceded by the Research Purpose move, the second sentence introduces the main research topic, inverse diffusion flame (IDF), and describes the current research situation of the topic.
The Research Background move begins with a summary sentence about why an inverse diffusion flame, which is the research topic, has an edge over a Bunsen burner.
The Research Background move develops by describing the chemical reactions and phenomenon that characterises an inverse diffusion flame.
Preceded by the features of an inverse diffusion fuel, the Research Background continues by introducing the characteristics of hydrogen.
Preceded by the features of hydrogen, a research problem about hydrogen combustion is introduced, paving way to a research gap.
Preceded by a research problem, a research gap in using pure hydrogen is specified.
Preceded by the research gap specified in the Research Background move, the Methods move begins with a proposed solution, which is to mix hydrogen with other fuels. Liquefied petroleum gas is highlighted as an example of other fuels.
Having highlighted liquefied petroleum gas in the previous sentence, the Methods move develops by explaining how liquefied petroleum gas with hydrogen may help address the research gap.
The Methods move continues by stating the nature of the study.
The main topics of investigation and major variables in the experiments are listed, offering an overall picture of the experimental design.
Preceded by an overview of the experimental design, the Preliminary Results move begins with a summary statement about the main preliminary result, which affirms the feasibility of the proposed method.
The Preliminary Results move develops by spelling out experimental evidence that supports the preceding summary statement.